Table I. Summary of effects of LL-37 on autoimmune and atherosclerosis disease pathogenesis
DiseaseEffects of LL-37
Psoriasis↓ Keratinocyte apoptosis (2)
↑ IFN-α production through stabilization of extracellular DNA (3)
SLEStabilizes circulating immune complexes and allows for IFN-α synthesis by pDCs (4)
↑ IL-18 production by macrophages (5)
RA↑ In synovial fluid inflammatory cells (6)
↑ Apoptosis of osteoblasts (7)
Expression and citrullination of lung LL-37 ↑ by cigarette smoking (8, 9)
Atherosclerosis↑ Levels in atherosclerotic plaques may ↑ inflammatory cell recruitment (10)
May promote thrombosis by activation of endothelial cells (11)