Table I. The role of inhibitory receptors on lymphocytes in infection
Pathogen ControlInfectionInhibitory Receptor PathwayAdaptive Immune Cells RegulatedInhibitory Receptor Blockade or KnockoutOutcome on Immune ResponseReferences
ChronicHIVPD-1, CD160, 2B4, Tim-3, CTLA-4, FCRL4, CD22, CD72, Lair-1CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, B cellsPD-1, PD-L1, Tim-3, 2B4Improves(4, 27, 40)
SIVPD-1CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cellsPD-1Improves(30)
Hepatitis C virusPD-1, 2B4, CD160, KLRG1, Tim-3, CTLA-4CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cellsTim-3, PD-L1, PD-1+CTLA-4Improves(29, 38)
Hepatitis B virusPD-1, CTLA-4CD8+ T cellsPD-1, CTLA-4Improves(28)
Human T cell lymphotropic virusPD-1CD8+ T cellsPD-L1Improves(25)
LCMVPD-1, Lag-3, CD160, 2B4, Tim-3, CTLA-4, PIR-B, GP49, BTLACD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cellsPD-1, PD-L1, PD-L1+Lag-3, Tim-3Improves(26, 36)
Friend virusPD-1, Lag-3, CTLA-4, Tim-3CD8+ T cellsImproves(25)
M. tuberculosisPD-1CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cellsPD-1Improves/reduces?(31, 76)
H. pyloriPD-L1CD8+ T cellsPD-L1, CTLA-4Improves(32)
L. donovani/mexicanaPD-L1CD8+ T cellsPD-L1Improves(34)
S. mansoniPD-L1CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cellsPD-L1Improves(35)
Trypanosoma cruziCTLA-4CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cellsCTLA-4Improves(25)
T. gondiiPD-1CD8+ T cellsPD-L1Improves(33)
Plasmodium falciparum/chabaudi/yoeliiPD-1, Lag-3, FCγRIIbCD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, B cellsPD-L1+Lag-3Improves(39, 41)
AcuteRabies virusPD-L1CD8+ T cellsPD-L1Improves(10)
Respiratory syncytial virusPD-1CD8+ T cellsPD-L1Improves(9)
Influenza virusPD-L1CD8+ T cellsPD-L1Reduces(14)
Sendai virusLag-3CD8+ T cellsLag-3Improves(12)
Vaccinia virusPD-1CD8+ T cellsPD-1Improves(18)
AdenovirusPD-1CD8+ T cellsPD-1Improves(13)
HSVPD-1, Tim-3CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cellsTim-3Improves(80)
H. capsulatumPD-1CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cellsPD-1Improves(11)
L. monocytogenesPD-L1CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cellsPD-L1Improves/reduces?(1517)