Table III. Comparison of different studies demonstrating survival and remission rates after treatment of established lupus nephritis in NZB/W F1 mice
Median Survival in Weeks
(Median Time to Death after Onset of Proteinuria in Weeks)
Grade 3+Grade 4+Grade 3+ and 4+Remission of Proteinuria Grade 3+ (4+) (%)Median Time to Relapse Grade 3+ (4+) in Weeks
CTX (11)10a
Azathioprine (12)18a
CTX + azathioprine + 
methylprednisolone (14)440
C-reactive protein (16)46100
CTX + CTLA4Ig and CTX +
CTLA4Ig + α-CD154 (15)60–80b,c
Irinotecan70 (35)76 (39)73 (35)75 (55)b,c9 (12)
  • a Grade of proteinuria before treatment not indicated, for CTX alone at least 5 animals with grade 2+.

  • b Defined as 30 mg/dl of proteinuria or less maintained for at least 3 wk.

  • c Rate of remission owing to the first treatment cycle.