Table I.

Hormonal induction of chemokine gene expression in human EM

Mean AgeExperimental StimulusaChemokine
CXCL10 and CXCL11bCXCL10 or CXCL11cCXCL10CXCL11CCL3CCL4CCL5XCL1CCL21CCL7
42.2Estradiol9/13d11/1310/1310/135/91/81/71/42/60/2
48.5Progesterone5/66/65/61/51/51/50/10/2ND
48.6Estradiol + ICI182780e5/64/54/5
  • a Endometrial tissue pieces were stimulated in medium containing estradiol (10−9 M) progesterone (10−8 M or 10−9 M), or ICI182780 (estradiol antagonist), as indicated.

  • b Fraction of samples that had increased expression of both CXCL10 and CXCL11.

  • c Fraction of samples that had increased expression of either CXCL10 or CXCL11.

  • d Number of samples with an increase in chemokine expression of the total number of samples tested. Induction indicates at least a 2-fold increase in gene expression compared with medium only

  • e Fraction of samples that did not induce expression of either CXCL10 or CXCL11 by estradiol in the presence of ICI182780.