Table I.

Summary of some known immunological differences between mouse and human

Hemotopoiesis in spleenActive into adulthoodEnds before birth
Presence of BALTSignificantLargely absent in healthy tissue9
Neutrophils in periph. blood10–25%50–70%10
Lymphocytes in periph. blood75–90%30–50%10
Hemotopoietic stem cellsc-kithigh, flt-3c-kitlow, flt-3+11
TLR2 expression on PBLLow (induced on many cells including T cells)Constitutive (but not on T cells)Binds lipopeptides88
TLR3Expressed on DC, Mac. Induced by LPSExpressed by DC. No LPS inductionBinds dsRNA88 89
TLR9Expressed on all myeloid cells, plasmacytoid DC and B cellsExpressed only on B cells, plasmacytoid DC and NBinds CpG90 91
TLR10PseudogeneWidely expressed
Sialic acid Neu5GC expressionWidespreadAbsentBinds pathogens92
CD33Expressed on granulocytesExpressed on monocytesBinds sialic acids93
Leukocyte defensinsAbsentPresentneutrophils14
Paneth cell defensinsProcessed by MMP7. Stored pre-processedStored as pro-form. Processed by trypsin94 95
Paneth cell defensinsAt least 20Two13
Macrophage NOInduced by IFN-γ and LPSInduced by IFN-α/β, IL-4+ anti-CD2317
CD4 on macrophagesAbsentPresent96
Predominant T cells in skin and mucosaγ/δ TCR (dendritic epidermal T cells—DETC)α/β TCR40
γ/δ T cells respond to phospho-antigensNoYes97
CD1 genesCD1dCD1a,b,c,d41
NK inhibitory Rs for MHC 1Ly49 family (except Ly49D and H)KIR20
NKG2D ligandsH-60, Rae1βMIC A, MIC B, ULBPNK activating Rs98
fMLP receptor affinityLowHigh99
FcγRIIA, CAbsentPresent22
Serum IgAMostly polymericMostly monomeric21
Ig classesIgA, IgD, IgE, IgG1, IgG2a*, IgG2b, IgG3, IgM * absent in C57BL/6, /10, SJL and NOD mice, which have IgG2cIgA1, IgA2, IgD, IgE, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM23
Ig CDR-H3 regionShorter, less diverseLonger, more diverse100
BLNK deficiencyIgMhigh B cells in peripheryNo peripheral B cells25 26
Btk deficiencyNormal pre-B and immature BBlocks pro-B to pre-B transition28
λ5 deficiency“leaky” block at pro-B to pre-B transitionBlocks pro-B to pre-B transition28
CD38 expression on B cellsLow on GC B cells, off in plasma cellsHigh on GC B cells and plasma cells29
B cell CD5 and CD23 expressionMutually exclusiveCo-expression29
IL-13 effect on B cellsNoneInduces switch to IgE24
Thy 1 expressionThymocytes, peripheral T cellsAbsent from all T cells, expressed on neurons32
Effect of γc deficiencyLoss of T, NK, and B cellsLoss of T, NK, but B cell numbers normal33 34
Effect of Jak3 deficiencyPhenocopies γc deficiencyPhenocopies γc deficiency31
Effect of IL-7R deficiencyBlocks T and B cell developmentOnly blocks T cell development35 36
ZAP70 deficiencyNo CD4+ or CD8+ T cellsNo CD8+ T but many nonfunctional CD4+Related to syk level?37 38
Caspase 8 deficiencyEmbryonic lethalViable—immunodeficiency62 63
Caspase 10AbsentPresent62
IFN-α promotes Th1 differentiationNoYesMutant stat2 in mice44
Th expression of IL-10Th2Th1 and Th251
IL-4 and IFN-γ expression by cultured ThEither/orSometimes both
CD28 expression on T cellsOn 100% of CD4+ and CD8+On 80% of CD4+, 50% of CD8+54
ICOS deficiencyNormal B cell numbers and function, normal IgM levelsB cells immature and severely reduced in number, low IgMPossibly age-related55 56 57
B7-H3 effects on T cellsInhibits activationPromotes activation101 102
ICAM3AbsentPresentDC-SIGN ligand103 104
P-selectin promoterActivated by TNF and LPSUnresponsive to inflammation58
MHC II expression on T cellsAbsentPresent59 60 61
Kv1.3 K+ channel on T cellsAbsentPresentRegulates Ca flux64 65
MUC1 on T cellsAbsentPresentRegulates migration?106
GranulysinAbsentPresentIn CTL43
(Table continues)