Table I. Glycans shared between microorganisms and mammals
EpitopeExpressionImmunological Outcomes of Glycan-Binding Abs
N-acetyl-d-glucosamineMammalianProtection against
 Apoptotic cells Bacterial infections
 Posttranslational modification Allergic disease
BacterialPromote apoptotic cell clearance
S. aureusMay modulate fungal infections
S. pneumoniae
S. pyogenes
M. tuberculosis
Fungal/Yeast
A. fumigatus
Helminth
H. polygyrus
S. stercoralis
Allergens
A. fumigatus
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dust mite)
B. germanica (cockroach)
 Other chitin-containing organisms (e.g., shellfish)
Sialyl-lacto-N-tetraoseMammalianProtection against
 Human breast milk Bacterial infections
Bacterial Invasive fungal infections
S. agalactiae type 1bMay modulate allergic disease
Fungal/Yeast
A. fumigatus
C. albicans
α-1,3-GlucanMammalianProtection against
 None to date Some invasive fungal diseases
Bacterial Allergic disease
S. mutans biofilmsMay modulate biofilm formation
 Select E. cloacae
 Select S. liquefaciens
A. vinelandii
Fungal/Yeast
A. fumigatus
A. nidulans
C. neoformans
H. capsulatum
Allergens
B. germanica (German cockroach)