Table I. Factors involved in immune and angiogenic privilege of the cornea
FactorFunctionRef.
AngiostatinInhibits vascular endothelial cell (VEC) proliferation(45)
α-MSHSuppresses IFN-γ production by T cells, promotes Treg development(33, 38)
CGRPSuppresses NO production by macrophages(35)
CRPInhibits activation of the complement system(32)
EndostatinPromotes VEC apoptosis(46)
FasLPromotes apoptosis of PMNs and T cells(26)
IDOPromotes T cell apoptosis, suppresses NK cell proliferation(39)
IL-1RaSuppresses APC migration(23)
MIFInhibits NK cell–mediated cytolysis of MHC class I cells(36, 37)
PDL-1Promotes T cell apoptosis, inhibits T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production(21, 22)
PEDFSuppresses VEGF expression(47)
TGF-βInhibits NK cell–mediated cytolysis of MHC class I cells, suppresses T cell activation(31)
TRAILPromotes T cell apoptosis and proliferation of Tregs(2729)
TSP-1Inhibits APC maturation and migration, and T cell allosensitization(25)
VEGFR-1Inhibits the mitogenic activity of VEGF-A on VECs(40)
VEGFR-2Inhibits the angiogenic activity of VEGF-C(44)
VEGFR-3Inhibits hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, decoy nonsignaling receptor for VEGF-C and VEGF-D(41, 43)
VIPSuppresses T cell activation and proliferation(34)
  • α-MSH, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone; CGRP, calcitonin gene-related peptide; CRP, complement regulatory proteins; MIF, macrophage migration inhibitory factor; PEDF, pigment epithelium-derived factor; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide.