Table I. Inflammasome survival studies reveal incremental inflammasome protection
Time to DeathSurvival (%)
PathogenVertebrate AdaptedDoseRouteWTKOWTKOΔ Lethal DoseaNotesRef.
Bacteria
Bacillus anthracisYes105s.c.80 h1000>5b (42)
 Bacillus anthracis AmesYes4 × 102i.p.3 d3 d5025>1c (43)
 Bacillus anthracis SterneYes2.5 × 107i.p.4 d1000>5c (43)
 Burkholderia cepaciaNo106i.p.1001001 (33)
 B. pseudomalleiYes200i.n.4 dn.d.0n.d.>8 (14)
100i.n.4 d4 d650>8 (14)
25i.n.4 d1000>8 (14)
100i.n.2–3 d1000>5 (44)
100i.n.3.5 d1000>5 (13)
 B. thailandensisNo2 × 107i.p.1 d1000>1,000,000 (29)
106i.p.2 d1000>1,000,000 (29)
105i.p.2 d1000>1,000,000 (29)
104i.p.2 d1000>1,000,000 (29)
1000i.p.3 d1000>1,000,000 (29)
100i.p.3 d1000>1,000,000 (29)
 C. violaceumNo106i.p.n.d.100n.d.>50,000 (33)
104i.p.3 d1000>50,000 (33)
100i.p.4 d1000>50,000 (33)
 Francisella tularensis subsp. novicidaYes1.5 × 105s.c.4 d3 d650>2d (45)
1.5 × 105s.c.6 d4 d250>1 (46)
5 × 103s.c.3 d2.5 d750>2 (47)
 Francisella philomiragiaNo106i.p.1001001 (33)
 K. pneumoniaeNo7.4 × 104i.t.50 h45 h150>1d (35)
1000i.n.5 d5 d7540>1 (48)
104i.n.4 d6 d5015>1 (48)
 L. monocytogenesYes106i.v.5 d3–4 d35–650>2 (49)
 M. tuberculosisYes250–350i.n.200 d148 d001d (50)
250–350i.n.170 d170 d001 (50)
50–100i.n.200 d110 d900>2 (51)
106i.t.6 d00>5d (52)
 Pseudomonas aeruginosaNo2 × 107i.n.36 h40 h2065>1d (53)
7 × 105i.t.3 d1001d (54)
 S. typhimuriumYes100i.p.5 d5 d001 (55)
106Oral9 d6 d001 (10)
108Oral8 d5.5 d001 (11)
 S. flexneriYes2 × 108i.n.20 h45 h7520>2 (56)
 S. aureusYes1 × 104i.c.20 h18 h6025>1 (57)
 Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B)Yes105i.p.24 h10040>2 (58)
 Streptococcus pneumoniaeYes105i.n.3 d2.5 d8755>1 (59)
 V. vulnificusNo1.5 × 104i.p.24 h10060>1 (36)
 Yersinia pestisYes1 × 104i.n.72 h72 h001 (60)
 Y. pseudotuberculosisYes1000i.p.6 d4 d001 (23)
1 × 109Oral7 d6 d001 (61)
Viruses
Encephalomyocarditis virusYes2× LD50i.p.5 d5 d1015>1 (62)
Influenza A virusYes6 × 104i.n.8 d7 d6540>1 (63)
8 × 103i.n.11 d10 d6535>1 (64)
10i.n.11 d1000>5 (65)
Vesicular stomatitis virusYes2 × 105i.n.7 d7 d4020>1 (62)
West Nile virusYes100s.c.9 d9 d8050>1 (66, 67)
Fungi
 Aspergillus fumigatusNo1 × 105i.p.6 d4 d700>2 (68)
 Candida albicansYes105i.v.9 d5 d400>1d (69)
2 × 105i.v.18 d17 d8350>1 (70)
5 × 106Oral3 d10060>1d (71)
n.s.Oral5 d9760>1 (72)
 Paracoccidioides brasiliensisNo2 × 106i.v.90 d75 d500>2 (73)
Parasites
 Plasmodium bergheiYes10i.v.9 d10 d4075>1d (74)
 Plasmodium berghei iRBCsYes104i.v.6.5 d6.5 d001 (75)
 Plasmodium berghei sporozitesYes104i.v.6.5 d6.5 d001 (75)
 Plasmodium chabaudi adamiYes5 × 104i.p.11 d12 d001d (76)
 Plasmodium falciparumYes106i.p.6 d6 d001 (77)
 Toxoplasma gondiiYes104i.p.10 d9 d7510>2 (78)
 Trypanosoma cruziYes103i.p.20 d20 d7010>2 (79)
103s.c.22 d28 d8090>1 (80)
  • a Change in 100% lethality between WT and KO mice. Values based on Ref. 3 because difference was 8-fold between WT 100% lethality and lowest dose listed. However, because there was no dose at which Casp1−/−Casp11−/− mice did not die, the difference was listed as >8-fold. Thus, a difference in survival percentages <50% was estimated to be a >1-fold increase in the infectious dose, >50% was >2-fold, and >100% was >5-fold.

  • b Mice encoding NLRP1b that could detect anthrax lethal toxin, leading to caspase-1 activation. KO mice have this sensitive NLRP1b but lack caspase-1 and caspase-11.

  • c KO are transgenic mice expressing a 129S1/SvImJ(129S1)-derived lethal toxin-sensitive allele of Nlrp1b on a B6 background. WT mice are normal B6.

  • d Aim2−/−, Nlrp3−/−, or Nlrc4−/− mice.

  • ∞, WT mice that were tested but did not die from the infection during the period presented in the published literature; i.c., intracranial; i.n., intranasal; iRBC, infected RBC; i.t., intratracheal; n.d., not determined.