Table I. Targeting of TAAs in T cell immunotherapy
ClassAdvantagesConcernsExamples
Tissue differentiation AgsShared AgsExpression on normal tissuesMART-1
gp100
Off-the-shelf treatments can be developedPotential for on-target, off-tumor toxicityCEA
CD19
Tumor germline (“tumor/testis”) AgsShared AgsPotential for on-target, off-tumor toxicityNY-ESO-1
MAGE-A3
Off-the-shelf treatments can be developedMay be expressed in a low frequency of cancers
Potentially tumor specific
Normal proteins overexpressed by cancer cellsShared AgsOn-target, off-tumor toxicityhTERT
EGFR
Off-the-shelf treatments can be developedMesothelin
Viral proteinsaShared AgsLow frequency of virus-associated cancersHPV
EBV
Off-the-shelf treatments can be developedMCC
Tumor specific, thus minimal risk of on-target, off-tumor toxicity
Tumor-specific mutated AgsTumor specific, thus minimal risk of on-target, off-tumor toxicityCurrently requires surgical resection for next-generation sequencingMum-1
β-Catenin
Shared driver/hot-spot mutations can potentially be targetedMost immunogenic mutations identified so far are patient specificCDK4
ERBB2IP
Extended time to develop personalized treatment targeting mutations
  • a Not included in this review.

  • CEA, carcinoembryonic Ag; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; HPV, human papillomavirus; hTERT, human telomerase reverse transcriptase; MCC, Merkel cell carcinoma.