Table I.

Summary of some known immunological differences between mouse and human

MouseHumanNotesRefs.
Hemotopoiesis in spleenActive into adulthoodEnds before birth
Presence of BALTSignificantLargely absent in healthy tissue9
Neutrophils in periph. blood10–25%50–70%10
Lymphocytes in periph. blood75–90%30–50%10
Hemotopoietic stem cellsc-kithigh, flt-3c-kitlow, flt-3+11
TLR2 expression on PBLLow (induced on many cells including T cells)Constitutive (but not on T cells)Binds lipopeptides88
TLR3Expressed on DC, Mac. Induced by LPSExpressed by DC. No LPS inductionBinds dsRNA88 89
TLR9Expressed on all myeloid cells, plasmacytoid DC and B cellsExpressed only on B cells, plasmacytoid DC and NBinds CpG90 91
TLR10PseudogeneWidely expressed
Sialic acid Neu5GC expressionWidespreadAbsentBinds pathogens92
CD33Expressed on granulocytesExpressed on monocytesBinds sialic acids93
Leukocyte defensinsAbsentPresentneutrophils14
Paneth cell defensinsProcessed by MMP7. Stored pre-processedStored as pro-form. Processed by trypsin94 95
Paneth cell defensinsAt least 20Two13
Macrophage NOInduced by IFN-γ and LPSInduced by IFN-α/β, IL-4+ anti-CD2317
CD4 on macrophagesAbsentPresent96
Predominant T cells in skin and mucosaγ/δ TCR (dendritic epidermal T cells—DETC)α/β TCR40
γ/δ T cells respond to phospho-antigensNoYes97
CD1 genesCD1dCD1a,b,c,d41
NK inhibitory Rs for MHC 1Ly49 family (except Ly49D and H)KIR20
NKG2D ligandsH-60, Rae1βMIC A, MIC B, ULBPNK activating Rs98
fMLP receptor affinityLowHigh99
FcαRIAbsentPresent21
FcγRIIA, CAbsentPresent22
Serum IgAMostly polymericMostly monomeric21
Ig classesIgA, IgD, IgE, IgG1, IgG2a*, IgG2b, IgG3, IgM * absent in C57BL/6, /10, SJL and NOD mice, which have IgG2cIgA1, IgA2, IgD, IgE, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM23
Ig CDR-H3 regionShorter, less diverseLonger, more diverse100
BLNK deficiencyIgMhigh B cells in peripheryNo peripheral B cells25 26
Btk deficiencyNormal pre-B and immature BBlocks pro-B to pre-B transition28
λ5 deficiency“leaky” block at pro-B to pre-B transitionBlocks pro-B to pre-B transition28
CD38 expression on B cellsLow on GC B cells, off in plasma cellsHigh on GC B cells and plasma cells29
B cell CD5 and CD23 expressionMutually exclusiveCo-expression29
IL-13 effect on B cellsNoneInduces switch to IgE24
Thy 1 expressionThymocytes, peripheral T cellsAbsent from all T cells, expressed on neurons32
Effect of γc deficiencyLoss of T, NK, and B cellsLoss of T, NK, but B cell numbers normal33 34
Effect of Jak3 deficiencyPhenocopies γc deficiencyPhenocopies γc deficiency31
Effect of IL-7R deficiencyBlocks T and B cell developmentOnly blocks T cell development35 36
ZAP70 deficiencyNo CD4+ or CD8+ T cellsNo CD8+ T but many nonfunctional CD4+Related to syk level?37 38
Caspase 8 deficiencyEmbryonic lethalViable—immunodeficiency62 63
Caspase 10AbsentPresent62
IFN-α promotes Th1 differentiationNoYesMutant stat2 in mice44
Th expression of IL-10Th2Th1 and Th251
IL-4 and IFN-γ expression by cultured ThEither/orSometimes both
CD28 expression on T cellsOn 100% of CD4+ and CD8+On 80% of CD4+, 50% of CD8+54
ICOS deficiencyNormal B cell numbers and function, normal IgM levelsB cells immature and severely reduced in number, low IgMPossibly age-related55 56 57
B7-H3 effects on T cellsInhibits activationPromotes activation101 102
ICAM3AbsentPresentDC-SIGN ligand103 104
P-selectin promoterActivated by TNF and LPSUnresponsive to inflammation58
GlyCAMPresentAbsent105
MHC II expression on T cellsAbsentPresent59 60 61
Kv1.3 K+ channel on T cellsAbsentPresentRegulates Ca flux64 65
MUC1 on T cellsAbsentPresentRegulates migration?106
GranulysinAbsentPresentIn CTL43
(Table continues)