Table I. Summary of relevant cytokine-targeted therapeutic studies
Cytokine InhibitorsPhase I and/or II Clinical Trial DataRandomized, Double-Blind Controlled and/or Phase III Clinical Trial Data
TNF-αR2 (etanercept)
 Prophylaxis+ (83)
 Treatment+ (102–105)
TNF-α binding mAb (infliximab)
 Prophylaxis− (84)
 Treatment+ (99, 100)− (101)
IL-1Ra (anakinra)
 Prophylaxis− (82)
 Treatment+ (106)
IL-2Ra/anti-CD25 (basiliximab/daclizumaba)
 Prophylaxis+ (107)
 Treatment+ (108–110)− (111, 112)
IL-6R (tocilizumab)
 Prophylaxis+ (45)
 Treatment+ (113, 114)
Keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin)
 Prophylaxis− (115–119)− (120)
IL-2 (aldesleukin)
 Prophylaxis+ (55)
 Treatment+ (51)
IL-11 (oprelvekin)
 Prophylaxis− (121)
Cytokines with Non-GVHD Benefits
IFN-α (INTRON A, Roferon-A)—promotion of GVL with concomitant promotion of GVHD
 Prophylaxis+ (122–126)
 Treatment+ (127, 128)
Keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin)—for reduction of oral mucositis
 Prophylaxis+ (116–118)+ (120)
Potential GVHD TherapiesPhase I and/or II Clinical Data Outside GVHDPhase III Clinical Trial Data Outside GVHD
 IL-17A mAb (secukinumab, ixekizumab, perakizumab)+ Ixekizumab (129)+ Secukinumab (131)
 IL-17RA mAb (brodalumab)+ (130)
 IL-17A/TNF (ABT122)Ongoing
IL-22 (fezakinumab)Ongoing
IL-12p40/23 mAb (ustekinumab)+ (97, 132)
IL-23p19 (guselkumab, tildrakizumab)+ Guselkumab (133)
+ Tildrakizumab (134)Tildrakizumab (ongoing)
IL-13 (lebrikizumab, tralokinumab)+ Tralokinumab (135)+ Lebrikizumab (136)
Tralokinumab (ongoing)
  • Cytokines and their antagonists are included that have been tested within a trial setting to prevent or treat GVHD or other complications of allogeneic BMT. Also included is a list of newer therapeutics with potential application to GVHD that are undergoing testing in other disease settings.

  • +, positive data; •, lack of data in this setting; −, negative data.