Table I.

Effects of PKA-inducing and-blocking agents on HIV replicationa

Agentp24 at 6 Days PostinfectionDifference from Costimulated Control
NE (10−5 M)337.3% (62.5)p <.05
NE + β-adrenergic blocker
Sotalol (10−5 M)100.4% (16.7)NS
Propranolol (10−7 M)87.9% (8.7)NS
NE+ α-adrenergic blocker
Phentolamine (10−5 M)327.6% (70.7)p <.05
PKA-activating agents
Forskolin (10−5 M)283.7% (184.7)p <.05
db-cAMP (10−4 M)358.4% (291.8)p <.05
NE+ PKA inhibitor
rp-cAMP (10−4 M)109.7% (6.8)NS
  • a PKA inducers or inhibitors were added postinfection and prior to CD3/CD28 costimulation. Data represent the mean (SE) percent change in p24 levels relative to costimulated controls (equaling 100%) at 6 days postinfection. NS, not significant.