IL-33, required for viral clearance by cytotoxic T cells, is generally expressed in vascular endothelial cells in healthy human tissues. We discovered that endothelial IL-33 expression was stimulated as a response to adenoviral transduction. This response was dependent on MRE11, a sensor of DNA damage that can also be activated by adenoviral DNA, and on IRF1, a transcriptional regulator of cellular responses to viral invasion and DNA damage. Accordingly, we observed that endothelial cells responded to adenoviral DNA by phosphorylation of ATM and CHK2 and that depletion or inhibition of MRE11, but not depletion of ATM, abrogated IL-33 stimulation. In conclusion, we show that adenoviral transduction stimulates IL-33 expression in endothelial cells in a manner that is dependent on the DNA-binding protein MRE11 and the antiviral factor IRF1 but not on downstream DNA damage response signaling.
This work was supported by grants from Helse Sør-Øst (2010051, 2010019, 2013115, 2014032), the Research Council of Norway (221929/F20), and the University of Oslo (131406).
The online version of this article contains supplemental material.
- Received January 12, 2016.
- Accepted February 6, 2017.
- Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.