An association between human reproductive failure and the presence of anti-phospholipid autoantibodies (APA) was suggested; both traditional and nontraditional APAs were associated with increased risk of recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM). We measured levels of antibodies to phosphatidylserine (anti-PS), cardiolipin (ACA), β2-glycoprotein-I (anti-β2GPI), annexin V (anti-Anx V) and prothrombin (anti-PT) in 277 women with idiopathic RSM, and 288 control women by ELISA. Anti-PS IgG, ACA IgM/IgG, anti-Anx V IgM/IgG, and anti-PT IgM positivity were significantly associated with higher RSM risk, after controlling for age, BMI, menarche, and gravida. RSM was independently associated with high levels of ACA IgM (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.5-17.1) and IgG (OR, 12.1; 95% CI, 6.6-22.2), anti-PS IgG (OR, 13.3; 95% CI, 6.4-27.4), anti-AnxV IgM (OR, 31.1; 95% CI, 15.7-56.6) and IgG (OR, 23.3; 95% CI, 8.8-51.7), and anti-PT IgM (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-5.9). Levels of autoantibodies were categorized into 5 strata (percentiles 1-75, 76-99, 91-95, 96-99, >99 among control patients) and analyzed in logistic regression models. The adjusted OR increased as the percentile value of ACA IgM/IgG ,anti-PS IgG and anti-Anx V IgM/IgG, and anti-PT IgM, increased. In conclusion, the presence of ACA IgM/IgG, anti-Anx IgM/IgG, anti-PS IgG, and anti-PT IgM antibodies are risk factors for RSM. The strongest association was seen for anti-Anx V IgM and IgG, followed by ACA IgG, and anti-PS IgG antibodies.
- Copyright © 2011 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.