It is known that antibodies to dengue viruses at subneutralizing concentrations enhance dengue virus infection of Fc gamma R+ cells. This phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when virus-antibody complexes bind to the Fc gamma R via the Fc portion of the Ig. It has been hypothesized that ADE may be responsible for the pathogenesis of the severe manifestations of dengue virus infection including dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. To further analyze the mechanisms of ADE, we prepared bispecific antibodies by chemically cross-linking antidengue virus antibodies to antibodies specific for Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII and the non-Fc R molecules beta2 microglobulin, CD15 or CD33 and examined whether these bispecific antibodies could enhance infection. Bispecific antibodies targeting dengue virus to Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII enhanced dengue virus infection, consistent with previous reports using conventional antibodies. Furthermore, bispecific antibodies targeting dengue virus to beta2 microglobulin, CD15 or CD33 also enhanced dengue virus infection. Bispecific antibody mediated ADE was inhibited by pretreating the cells with the appropriate blocking mAb. These results indicate that cell surface molecules other than Fc gamma R can mediate ADE and suggest that the Fc gamma R does not provide a unique signal necessary for enhanced infection. We hypothesize that directing dengue virus to the cell surface by a bispecific antibody facilitates the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor, thereby increasing its infectivity.
- Copyright © 1991 by American Association of Immunologists